The ethical theories are the following: Normative ethics attempts to provide practical moral…

The ethical theories are the following: Normative ethics attempts to provide practical moral…

The ethical theories are the following:

Normative ethics attempts to provide practical moral standards that differentiate right from wrong and tell us how to live moral lives. Normative ethics addresses questions such as “Which things are good and bad?” and “What should we do?” It endorses some ethical evaluations and rejects others.

Before we begin analyzing specific situations in the criminal justice fields, let us define some of the major concepts:

Utilitarianism believes in the greatest good for the greatest number of people. A DUI checkpoint is an inconvenience to motorists, but the utilitarian view would point out that they help provide safer streets for all.

Deontological theories consider duty as the basis of morality. The correctness of an action is within itself, not in its consequences. A well-intentioned action is ethically correct, even if it results in an unfortunate outcome.

Teleology is the study of final causes; it determines whether the end justifies the means. An aggressive “stop-and-frisk” policy would not be supported by the deontological viewpoint, as many innocent pedestrians would be harassed. However, the teleological viewpoint would say that this activity is ethical if the end result is the discovery of drugs and firearms among some of the people frisked.

The categorical imperative is a concept originated by Immanuel Kant. Kant states, “Act only according to a maxim by which you can at the same time will that it shall become a general law.” In other words, “act only in such a way that you would want all men to act.”

A more recent addition to the lexicon is the peacemaking philosophy. According to the peacemaking view, we can make better and ethical decisions toward a better future for society through connectedness, care, and mindfulness. Decisions should be made with the aim of repairing and restoring the community to a state of peacefulness.

Please answer each question in paragraph form and give references.

  • Defend or reject the use of capital punishment with one or more of the ethical theories discussed so far in this course.
  • Describe the three ethical frameworks for punishment: utilitarianism, deontology, and peacemaking. Which one do you think should serve as the ethical framework for punishment today? Why?
  • Ethical principles are not as clear-cut for probation officers as they are for police officers. A probation officer must serve as both a mentor to the clients as well as a law enforcer. Discuss the ethical systems that guide the work of a probation officer and describe how they may present the officer with difficulties on the job.

The ethical theories are the following: Normative ethics attempts to provide practical moral…

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